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# Table 1 Related research on problem posing

[Ref] | Domain (course) | Mode (classroom/lab/online) | Intervention/procedure | Sample/target subject (background and number) | Findings |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Gubareva, (1992) | Biochemistry | Classroom lecture | Students were given guidelines of what type of problems to pose before performing PP | Unavailable | Quality of problems improves gradually with more and more PP practice |

Graesser and Person (1994) | Research Methodology (RM) and Algebra | Tutorial | PP between tutor and students in a tutoring session |
Undergraduates—RM N = 27, Seventh graders—Algebra N = 13
| Evidence—students were able to self-regulate their learning by asking questions when they spot knowledge deficits |

Silver et al. (1996) | Mathematics education | Lab experiment | Interleaved PP-problem solving-PP three-level activity on a given context | 53 middle school teachers and 28 prospective secondary school teachers | Subjects shown some skills of PP. Subjects posed more problems before problem solving than during or after problem solving. PS influenced the focus in the second PP activity |

Silver (1997) | Mathematics education | NA | NA | NA | Discussed that inquiry-oriented mathematics instruction which includes PS and PP tasks and activities can assist students to develop more creative approaches to mathematics |

English (1998) | Generic | Experiment | 16 sessions (8 weeks) of PP program for improvement of PP skills |
Six classes of 8-year-old students (N = 154)
| Experimental group shown significant improvement in the PP skills—ability to generate their own problems |

Cai and Hwang (2002) | Quantitative aptitude | Lab experiment | Three pairs of problem solving (PS) and PP tasks were used in this study | 98 US and 155 China-6th grade students | There was a much stronger link between PS and PP for the Chinese sample than there was for the US sample |

Mestre (2002) | Physics | Lab experiment | Students were asked to do PP based on the given situation and their prior knowledge | 4 undergrads | PP is a powerful assessment tool for probing students’ understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts |

Lavy and Bershadsky (2003) | Mathematics education | Lab experiment | 2 workshops with PP activities based on given problem were performed using “what-if-not?” strategy | 28 pre-service teachers (second/third year) | Contribution: Categorization of the different kinds of posed problems using the “what-if-not?” strategy |

McComas and Abraham (2004) | General | Classroom | NA | NA | Compiled taxonomy of question types. Proposed a 3-step technique to ask effective questions, and 8 factors for asking effective questions to teachers |

Profetto-McGrath et al. (2004) | Nursing education | Context-based learning tutorial/seminars | Thirty 90-min seminars were audio taped and analyzed using a Questioning Framework designed for this study | 30 nurse educators and their 314 students | Majority of questions posed by tutors and students were framed at the low cognitive level. Recommendations: students and tutors should be trained on how to question |

Akay and Boz (2009) | Mathematics education | Classroom | The experimental group was demonstrated with 28 different PP activities | 41 prospective science teachers | It reaffirmed that PP (by teachers) should be used in mathematics classes |

Toluk-Uçar (2009) | Mathematics education | Classroom | Classroom PP exercise-subjects posed problems on given symbolic situations | 95 pre-service primary school teachers | PP had a positive impact on pre-service teachers’ understanding of fractions as well as on their views about what it means to know mathematics |

Kar et al. (2010) | Mathematics education | Lab experiment | Prospective teachers (PT) PP-PS tests. Each item in the PS test included patterns in PP tests | 76 (PTs) | There was a significant relation between PP and PS |

Lavy and Shriki (2010) | Mathematics education | Computer-based environment | Subjects were given guidelines using the “what-if-not?” strategy | 25 PTs | PTs perceived that engaging in the inquiry-based activity enhanced both their mathematical and meta-mathematical knowledge |

Cankoy and Darbaz (2010) | Mathematics education | Classroom with PP as an instructional strategy | Experimental group has followed a PP-based PS instruction for 10 weeks, whereas the control group has followed a traditional PS instruction | 53 third-grade students from an urban elementary school | Experimental group was better than the control group students in terms of understanding the problem even after a 3-month gap between posttest and intervention |

Çildir and Sezen (2011) | Physics education | Lab experiment | Study sheets which consisted of 8 PP questions | 9 prospective physics teachers-sophomores | High scorers have higher PP skills than those with medium or lower scores; however, no significant difference was observed between those with medium or lower scores in terms of their PS skills |

Beal and Cohen (2012) | Mathematics and Science | Online collaborative learning environment (Teach Ourselves) | Pose problems over web-based content-authoring and sharing system |
Middle school students, N = 224
| Evidence—students were able to generate problems on the online platform |

Sengül and Katranci (2012) | Mathematics education | Lab experiment | PP related to the “Sets” topic and then qualitative study of their activity | 56 sophomore prospective primary mathematics teachers | Subjects had the most difficulty in adjusting the level of the problem posed to the level of the primary education |

Arikan et al. (2012) | General | Lab experiment | 15 PP-based questions and then qualitative study | 8 eleventh graders | The PP activity can also be utilized by teachers as an alternative method of assessment |

Pintér (2012) | Mathematics education | Classroom | Initial question, and demo of the “what-if” methods of PP were presented | Small sample of self-selected students in PS course | Improvement in posing problems of “what-if” type |

Cai et al. (2013) | Mathematics education | Classroom activity | Combination of PS and PP tasks given to students | 390 eleventh graders | Confirmed the validity of PP as a measure of curriculum effect on student learning. Contributed with qualitative analysis rubrics for the questions |