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Table 1 Related research on problem posing

From: An exploration of problem posing-based activities as an assessment tool and as an instructional strategy

[Ref] Domain (course) Mode (classroom/lab/online) Intervention/procedure Sample/target subject (background and number) Findings
Gubareva, (1992) Biochemistry Classroom lecture Students were given guidelines of what type of problems to pose before performing PP Unavailable Quality of problems improves gradually with more and more PP practice
Graesser and Person (1994) Research Methodology (RM) and Algebra Tutorial PP between tutor and students in a tutoring session Undergraduates—RM N = 27, Seventh graders—Algebra N = 13 Evidence—students were able to self-regulate their learning by asking questions when they spot knowledge deficits
Silver et al. (1996) Mathematics education Lab experiment Interleaved PP-problem solving-PP three-level activity on a given context 53 middle school teachers and 28 prospective secondary school teachers Subjects shown some skills of PP. Subjects posed more problems before problem solving than during or after problem solving. PS influenced the focus in the second PP activity
Silver (1997) Mathematics education NA NA NA Discussed that inquiry-oriented mathematics instruction which includes PS and PP tasks and activities can assist students to develop more creative approaches to mathematics
English (1998) Generic Experiment 16 sessions (8 weeks) of PP program for improvement of PP skills Six classes of 8-year-old students (N = 154) Experimental group shown significant improvement in the PP skills—ability to generate their own problems
Cai and Hwang (2002) Quantitative aptitude Lab experiment Three pairs of problem solving (PS) and PP tasks were used in this study 98 US and 155 China-6th grade students There was a much stronger link between PS and PP for the Chinese sample than there was for the US sample
Mestre (2002) Physics Lab experiment Students were asked to do PP based on the given situation and their prior knowledge 4 undergrads PP is a powerful assessment tool for probing students’ understanding of physics concepts, as well as their ability to transfer their knowledge to novel contexts
Lavy and Bershadsky (2003) Mathematics education Lab experiment 2 workshops with PP activities based on given problem were performed using “what-if-not?” strategy 28 pre-service teachers (second/third year) Contribution: Categorization of the different kinds of posed problems using the “what-if-not?” strategy
McComas and Abraham (2004) General Classroom NA NA Compiled taxonomy of question types. Proposed a 3-step technique to ask effective questions, and 8 factors for asking effective questions to teachers
Profetto-McGrath et al. (2004) Nursing education Context-based learning tutorial/seminars Thirty 90-min seminars were audio taped and analyzed using a Questioning Framework designed for this study 30 nurse educators and their 314 students Majority of questions posed by tutors and students were framed at the low cognitive level. Recommendations: students and tutors should be trained on how to question
Akay and Boz (2009) Mathematics education Classroom The experimental group was demonstrated with 28 different PP activities 41 prospective science teachers It reaffirmed that PP (by teachers) should be used in mathematics classes
Toluk-Uçar (2009) Mathematics education Classroom Classroom PP exercise-subjects posed problems on given symbolic situations 95 pre-service primary school teachers PP had a positive impact on pre-service teachers’ understanding of fractions as well as on their views about what it means to know mathematics
Kar et al. (2010) Mathematics education Lab experiment Prospective teachers (PT) PP-PS tests. Each item in the PS test included patterns in PP tests 76 (PTs) There was a significant relation between PP and PS
Lavy and Shriki (2010) Mathematics education Computer-based environment Subjects were given guidelines using the “what-if-not?” strategy 25 PTs PTs perceived that engaging in the inquiry-based activity enhanced both their mathematical and meta-mathematical knowledge
Cankoy and Darbaz (2010) Mathematics education Classroom with PP as an instructional strategy Experimental group has followed a PP-based PS instruction for 10 weeks, whereas the control group has followed a traditional PS instruction 53 third-grade students from an urban elementary school Experimental group was better than the control group students in terms of understanding the problem even after a 3-month gap between posttest and intervention
Çildir and Sezen (2011) Physics education Lab experiment Study sheets which consisted of 8 PP questions 9 prospective physics teachers-sophomores High scorers have higher PP skills than those with medium or lower scores; however, no significant difference was observed between those with medium or lower scores in terms of their PS skills
Beal and Cohen (2012) Mathematics and Science Online collaborative learning environment (Teach Ourselves) Pose problems over web-based content-authoring and sharing system Middle school students, N = 224 Evidence—students were able to generate problems on the online platform
Sengül and Katranci (2012) Mathematics education Lab experiment PP related to the “Sets” topic and then qualitative study of their activity 56 sophomore prospective primary mathematics teachers Subjects had the most difficulty in adjusting the level of the problem posed to the level of the primary education
Arikan et al. (2012) General Lab experiment 15 PP-based questions and then qualitative study 8 eleventh graders The PP activity can also be utilized by teachers as an alternative method of assessment
Pintér (2012) Mathematics education Classroom Initial question, and demo of the “what-if” methods of PP were presented Small sample of self-selected students in PS course Improvement in posing problems of “what-if” type
Cai et al. (2013) Mathematics education Classroom activity Combination of PS and PP tasks given to students 390 eleventh graders Confirmed the validity of PP as a measure of curriculum effect on student learning. Contributed with qualitative analysis rubrics for the questions