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Table 2 PP strategies evolved from the grounded theory-based qualitative analysis of questions

From: An exploration of problem posing-based activities as an assessment tool and as an instructional strategy

Strategies Definition Example
Apply The seed knowledge is employed to create some “known application” from prior knowledge. Explicit identification of prior known application is mandatory in this strategy. Applications are identified either from: 1) the same domain, or 2a) different academic domain, or 2b) real life. Creating social network graph, is it possible?”, Here application (“social network graph”) comes from real life experiences.
Organize This strategy aims at unfolding variants of the seed knowledge by organizing multiple instances of the seed concept to obtain some structural arrangement (which comes from prior experience). “Cyclic list of nodes possible?” Here multiple instances of the concept “node” (from seed knowledge), i.e., large number of nodes are proposed to be organized in a cyclic manner to unfold a variant of the seed (i.e., circular linked list).
Probe Prior knowledge is used as a basis to make a richer inquiry into the seed and used to add more understanding of the seed. Here prior knowledge is NOT the prior known application, as in Apply. Associations between prior knowledge and seed knowledge are performed so as to use prior knowledge as a basis to make a richer enquiry into the seed knowledge. Example: “address (next) is relative or direct?” Here concepts from prior knowledge (“relative/direct addressing”) has been used to make a richer understanding of the construct “next”, which is a part of seed.
Compare The questioning strategy is to make associations between prior knowledge and seed knowledge such that prior knowledge is compared or contrasted with the concepts in the seed knowledge. Example: “chain of nodes vs. array?” In this question the prior knowledge (“array”) is contrasted with seed concept (chain of “nodes”).
Connect In this strategy, student associates the seed knowledge to some prior knowledge, from same domain, from other domains, or from real life. Making analogy between some prior knowledge with seed knowledge is included in this strategy. Contrasting or comparing the seed with some prior knowledge does NOT come under this strategy. Example: “Can we use neural network and fuzzy logic to create an agent?” In this question. the prior concept of “neural network and fuzzy logic” is connected with the context of seed knowledge (“an agent”).
Vary In this strategy, the objective of the question is to modify/ vary the component(s), attribute(s), or part(s) of the seed to unfold the variants of the seed concepts. These questions may or may not give rise to some application of the seed, but applications are NOT explicitly identified. “In addition to next have previous node?” In this question, instead of having just one pointer/reference to another node, the idea of having two pointer/ reference variables in the node structure, is proposed. In this way a variant of “singly linking” (i.e., a “doubly linking”) is unfolded.
Implement The questions generated using this strategy show that students think about how some operation/procedure, can be performed on the seed knowledge to achieve a goal state related to the seed. It should be noted that prior knowledge, which is in the form of operation/procedure, are explicitly evident from the question statement. “How to perform inheritance from a node possible to give “multinodes”?” Here the operation inheritance has been explicitly identified, and question is about how to implement that operation on the seed concept (“nodes”).
Clarify The analyses revealed that students ask question to clarify their muddy points. All the questions which needed reiteration of the content that has been explicitly been taught in the seed or in any other previous lecture in the course are categorized to follow clarification strategy. Hence clarification questions do not unfold any new knowledge. “What is the use of ‘this’ method?” The use of “this” operator was explicitly taught in the seed.