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Table 4 Summary of Kendall’s W test on students’ perceptions of the AR lessons and the simulators

From: Impact of augmented reality lessons on students’ STEM interest

Lesson Equipment Constructs Mean SD Mean rank W χ2 df p Post hoc
Laparoscopic surgery Tablets Authenticity 12.09 1.91 1.75 0.06 3.77 2 <0.15  
   Engagement 12.81 1.66 2.13      
   Motivation 12.38 2.93 2.13      
  Simulators Authenticity 10.88 2.79 1.31 0.48 30.66 2 <0.001 Moti > Authen (p < 0.001)
   Engagement 12.81 3.11 2.48      Enga > Authen (p < 0.001)
   Motivation 12.88 1.68 2.20      
Cardiac catheterization Tablets Authenticity 11.59 1.66 1.66 0.13 8.53 2 <0.01 Enga > Authen (p < 0.018)
   Engagement 12.59 1.54 2.25      
   Motivation 12.03 2.87 2.09      
  Simulators Authenticity 11.03 2.74 1.30 0.49 31.19 2 <0.001 Moti > Authen (p < 0.001)
   Engagement 12.97 2.80 2.47      Enga>Authen (p < 0.001)
   Motivation 12.69 1.45 2.23      
  1. Note: In the post hoc column, Moti means motivation, Authen means authenticity, and Enga means engagement