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Table 3 An overview of the reviewed studies of K-12 flipped classrooms

From: A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research

Study Context Subject Sample size (approach) Student age and grade level (if available) Research design (duration)
Bhagat et al. (2016) High school (Taiwan) Math 41 (FC) 41 (TC) Aged 14–15 QE (6 weeks)
Chao et al. (2015) High school (Taiwan) Engineering 46 (FC) 45 (TC) Aged ~17 Grade 11 QE (8 weeks)
Chen (2016) High school (USA) Health 33 (FC) 31 (TC) Grade 9 QE (3 weeks)
Clark (2015) Secondary school (USA) Math 42 (FC) Aged 13–15 Grade 9 CS (7 weeks)
DeSantis et al. (2015) High school (USA) Math 26 (FC) 21 (TC) Grades 9–11 QE (1 topic)
Grypp and Luebeck (2015) High school (USA) Math 21 (FC) Not mentioned AR (3 weeks)
Huang and Hong (2016) High school (Taiwan) English 40 (FC) 37 (TC) Aged ~16 Grade 10 QE (12 weeks)
Kettle (2013) High school (England) Physics 12 (FC) Aged 16–18 AS/A2 level PE (appeared to be one semester)
Kirvan et al. (2015) High school (USA) Math 29 (FC) 25 (TC) Grades 7–8 QE (appeared to be one topic)
Lai and Hwang (2016) Elementary school (Taiwan) Math 20 (SRFC) 24 (FC) Grade 4 QE (4 weeks)
Mazur et al. (2015) High school (Canada) Social studies 5 classes (FC) Grade 9 AR (1 year)
Schultz et al. (2014) High school (USA) Chemistry 29 (FC) 32 (TC) Aged 15–18 Grades 10–12 QE (4 months)
Snyder et al. (2014) High school (USA) Social studies 209 (FC) Grade 9 Action research (3 years)
Tsai et al. (2015) Elementary school (Taiwan) Computer 50 (FPBL) 48 (PBL) 46 (TC) Grade 6 QE (15 weeks)
Wang (2016) High school (Taiwan) Chinese 29 (MAFC) 27 (FC) Aged 15–16 Grade 11 QE (2 weeks)
  1. FC flipped classroom, FPBL problem-based learning with flipped classroom, MAFC mobile-assisted flipped classroom, PBL problem-based learning, SRFC self-regulated flipped classroom, TC traditional classroom, AR action research, CS comparison study (historical control), PE pre-experimental (single group study), QE quasi-experimental design