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Table 4 Student-related challenges in K-12 flipped classrooms

From: A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research

  Category Descriptions Supported citations
1. Familiarity of flipped classroom Some students held a conventional view of learning. Snyder et al. 2014; Wang 2016
   Some students did not get used to the routines of flipped classroom approach. Clark 2015; Schultz et al. 2014; Snyder et al. 2014
2. Video lectures Instructional videos were too long; and students could not focus on watching videos. Kettle 2013; Schultz et al. 2014
   Watching videos were boring and passive. Snyder et al. 2014
3. In-class activities Some students needed more clear instructions on how to work productivity in groups during class. Grypp and Luebeck 2015
4. Student workload Pre-class activities were time consuming and overwhelmed students’ time at home. Schultz et al. 2014; Snyder et al. 2014; Wang 2016
5. Out-of-class supports Students could not ask questions immediately during video lectures. Bhagat et al. 2016; Schultz et al. 2014