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Table 9 Flipped learning activities in the reviewed K-12 flipped classroom studies

From: A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research

Study Pre-class In-class After-class
Bhagat et al. (2016) Watching 15–20-min videos Group discussion on textbook problems  
Chao et al. (2015) Watching videos, answering 5–8 online short quizzes Q&A on videos, group discussion on ill-structured problems, presentation  
Chen (2016) Watching videos Practicing skills through textbook activities, journal writing, worksheets  
Clark (2015) Watching videos, listening to podcasts, reading articles, viewing presentations, completing content notes Independent practice, group work, hands-on activities, discovery learning, project-based learning, real-world applications  
DeSantis et al. (2015) Watching videos, completing worksheets with fill-in-the-blank and MC questions Group discussion on video content, 2Q&A on videos, individual tasks, class discussion  
Grypp and Luebeck (2015) Watching 6–10-min videos, reading textbook Brief introduction and review, hands-on activities, group problem solving assignments  
Huang and Hong (2016) Watching videos Warm-up discussion, group work, students’ questioning and giving feedback, teacher’s conclusion  
Kettle (2013) Watching videos, taking notes Problem solving  
Kirvan et al. (2015) Watching videos Pre-assessment, re-teaching for underperforming students, collaborative learning, gallery walks/carousel activities, investigation/inquiry problems  
Lai and Hwang (2016) Learning and taking quizzes from e-books, watching videos Clarifying students’ misunderstandings, extending students’ knowledge Students’ self-evaluation and reflection
Mazur et al. (2015) Watching videos Group discussion on problems, presentation  
Schultz et al. (2014) Watching 10–15-min screencast, online reflection Brief review, problem solving  
Snyder et al. (2014) Watching 8–12-min screencast, taking notes Brief review, group work, presentation, class discussion, inquiry-based learning  
Tsai et al. (2015) Watching 10-min videos, online discussion Group discussion on assigned tasks, introducing course contents  
Wang (2016) Visiting multimedia learning contents, online questions, taking notes Discussion, sharing learning thought