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Table 1 Differences between naïve and skillful SRLs (Schunk and Zimmerman 1998)

From: Learning analytics of the relationships among self-regulated learning, learning behaviors, and learning performance

Classes of self-regulated learners
Self-regulatory phases Naïve self-regulators Skillful self-regulators
Forethought Nonspecific, distal goals Specific, hierarchical goals
Performance goal orientation Learning goal orientation
Low self-efficacy High self-efficacy
Disinterested Intrinsically interested
Performance/volitional control Unfocused plan Focused on performance
Self-handicapping strategies Self-instruction/imagery
Outcome self-monitoring Process self-monitoring
Self-reflection Avoid self-evaluation Seeking self-evaluation
Ability attributions Strategy/practice attributions
Negative self-reactions Positive self-reactions
Nonadaptive Adaptive