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Table 4 Problems from DBR cycle 1, possible reasons for their occurrence, and redesign steps

From: MIC-O-MAP: a technology-enhanced learning environment for developing micro-macro thinking skills

Problems seen in DBR cycle 1 Potential reason for problem Proposed redesign to address problem
Learners struggle in establishing a micro-macro link, making an informed prediction and phrasing a justification Disjoint activities—detailed question prompts and scaffolds, i.e., conceptual scaffolding questions are included in the revision phase only Incorporating the question prompts at two stages: when a choice of graph is made and justification is written and when testing indicates incorrect prediction
Option to take notes
While the number of observations made in the simulation of micro-world was high, the number of times feedback from the question prompts was followed was much lower Overload on memory to recollect pointers from feedback while interacting with simulation of microscopic model Simultaneous display of simulation of micro-world and other features including question prompts
Including a pedagogical agent and providing feedback as a dialogue
Learners left the task half-way and stopped interacting after getting multiple answers incorrect Perceiving question prompts as assessment Including a pedagogical agent and providing feedback as a dialogue
Learners faced navigation difficulty while interacting with MIC-O-MAP interface Features and learning activities are presented in a linear manner. In order to revisit an earlier activity, students had to visit all other activities. On-coming back/previous choices/answers were erased Back tracing the path and retaining users’ action such as choices selected and text entry
Scroll bars, reset, and back button and retention of answers/choices included