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Table 4 Adapted items used to measure constructs

From: Effects of psychological ownership on teachers’ beliefs about a cloud-based virtual learning environment

Source items Adapted items Referenced sources
Experienced control
 The influence over the things that affect the job. I have influence over the things that affect my Frog VLE account. Brown et al. (2014); Webster et al. (1993)
 The influence over the tasks or parts of tasks. I have influence over the tasks that I perform in my Frog VLE.
 The influence over job-related decisions made. I influence decisions made on my Frog VLE.
 Setting own work deadlines. I set my own deadlines in my Frog VLE.
 Control of the pace and scheduling of the work. I control the scheduling of the tasks that involve Frog VLE.
 Control when using Lotus 1-2-3. I felt in control when using the Frog VLE.
 Control over my interaction with Lotus 1-2-3. I feel in control over my interaction with the Frog VLE.
Knowledge about VLE
 I am intimately familiar with what is going on with regard to my job. I am familiar with what is going on with regard to my Frog VLE account. Brown et al. (2014); Zhang et al. (2011)
 I have a depth of knowledge which relates to the job. I have in-depth knowledge which relates to Frog VLE.
 I have a comprehensive understanding of the work that I am asked to do. I have a comprehensive understanding of the functions in Frog VLE.
 I have a broad understanding of this job. I have a broad understanding of Frog VLE.
 I always know where I can find the information I am looking for at Amazon.com’s website. I always know how to find the information I need in Frog VLE.
 I visit Amazon.com very often. I visit Frog VLE very often.
 I have been to Amazon.com many times. I have visited Frog VLE many times.
Self-investment
 I have invested a major part of “myself” into this job. I have invested a major part of “myself” into Frog VLE. Brown et al. (2014); Zhao et al. (2016)
 I have invested many of my ideas into this job. I have contributed many of my ideas into Frog VLE.
 I have invested a number of my talents into this job. I have invested my talents into Frog VLE.
 I have invested a significant amount of my life into this job. I have invested a significant amount of my time into Frog VLE.
 I often chat with friend using LINE. I often perform work using Frog VLE.
 I often use LINE to know current status of friends I often use Frog VLE for teaching and learning purposes.
Psychological ownership of VLE
 I personally invested a lot in the implementation of the new system in my clinic. I personally invested a lot in the implementation of the Frog VLE. Barki et al. (2008)
 When I think about it, I see a part of myself in the new system. I can see a part of my teaching in the Frog VLE.
 I feel the new system belongs to all the doctors in my clinic. I feel the Frog VLE belongs to all the teachers in my school.
 I feel a high level of ownership toward the new system. I feel a high level of ownership toward the Frog VLE.
 I see myself as a champion of the new system in my clinic. I see myself as a champion of the Frog VLE in my school.
 I configured the functionalities of the new system to better align it with my medical practice. I organise the content of the Frog VLE to better align it with my teaching practice.
Perceived usefulness
 Job performance Using Frog VLE improves my job performance. Davis (1989); Wang and Wang (2009)
 Work more quickly Frog VLE enables me to accomplish tasks more quickly.
 Increase productivity Using Frog VLE increases my job productivity output.
 Effectiveness Using Frog VLE improves my work effectiveness.
 Makes job easier Using Frog VLE makes my job easier.
 Useful I find Frog VLE useful to my job.
 Using web-based learning system enhances my interactions with the students. Using Frog VLE enhances my interactions with students.
 Using web-based learning system increases the reuse rate of the course materials Using Frog VLE increases the reuse rate of the teaching and learning materials.
Perceived ease of use
 Easy to learn It is easy for me to learn to use Frog VLE. Davis (1989); Wang and Wang (2009)
 Controllable It is easy to get Frog VLE to do what I want it to do.
 Clear and understandable It is easy for me to understand how to use Frog VLE.
 Flexible The Frog VLE is flexible to work with.
 Easy to become skilful It is easy for me to become skilful at using Frog VLE.
 Easy to use Frog VLE is easy to use.
 I find it easy to get web-based learning system do what I want it to do corresponding to the ways I teach. I find it easy to use Frog VLE to carry out my lesson plan.
 It is easy for me to recover from errors encountered while using web-based learning system. It is easy for me to recover from errors encountered while using Frog VLE.