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Table 7 Categorisation of problematic distractors (combined)

From: Automatic distractor generation for multiple-choice English vocabulary questions

Problematic distractor Baseline Proposed TOEFL
Expert-based 82 38 25
Test taker-based 40 26 24
Intersection 24 9 5
Too similar with the correct answer or the target word 9 1 0
Different word class 3 2 3
No relation to the correct answer 0 0 0
Different word difficulty 16 5 1
Antonym of the correct answer 1 0 0
Synonym pair 1 0 0
Others 0 1 1