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Table 9 Summary of smart content usage and student performance across groups with different practice styles

From: An integrated practice system for learning programming in Python: design and evaluation

  Cluster inactive (N = 339) Cluster mix (N = 296) Cluster animations (N = 25) Cluster problems (N=15)
(a) Content usage Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE)
 Semantic probs. 0 (0) 11.9 (0.56) 2 (0.74) 7 (2.52)
 Parson probs. 0 (0) 11.59 (0.56) 2.6 (0.79) 0.4 (0.34)
 Annotated ex. 0 (0) 20.61 (0.96) 1.72 (0.54) 0.87 (0.73)
 Animated ex. 0 (0) 14.3 (0.71) 11.2 (2.02) 0.4 (0.4)
(b) Performance measure
 Pretest score 0.17 (0.01) 0.22 (0.01) 0.2 (0.05) 0.18 (0.06)
 Learning gain 0.46 (0.02) 0.57 (0.02) 0.37 (0.06) 0.47 (0.08)
 Exercise points 4110.74 (97.49) 5369.01 (61.14) 5045.88 (220.11) 5162.8 (328.61)
 Exercise efficiency − 0.21 (0.04) 0.28 (0.03) 0.12 (0.1) 0.19 (0.15)
 Exam points 76.05 (1) 83.49 (0.83) 75.64 (4.36) 80.93 (4.19)
Practice time (minutes) 0 (0) 60.91 (5.12) 12.39 (3.13) 15.34 (6.54)