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Table 1 Elements of the IDI school model and their relationship with previous research approaches

From: Digital technology and practices for school improvement: innovative digital school model

Element Research approach The main conclusion References
Vision of the school
 Visions of using digital technology Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school; research on school improvement and change A shared vision is needed for continuous school improvement. Cuban et al. (2001); Twining et al. (2013)
 Consensus about the vision Research on school improvement and change A consensus of the vision enables collaboration directed to a same goal. Leclerc et al. (2012)
 Intentional development orientation Research on innovation applied in school context Intentional orientation is one of the corner stones for innovations. Creemers and Reezigt (2005); Leclerc et al. (2012); OECD (2015); Rogers (2003)
Leadership
 Shared leadership Research on school improvement and change Shared leadership supports teachers’ participation and engagement in school-level activities by sharing the responsibility to several members of the community. Facer (2012); Harris (2002a); Leclerc et al. (2012); OECD (2015); Spillane et al. (2004); Resnick and Spillane (2006)
 Principal’s networking Research on school improvement and change Networking provides new perspectives and in this way, promotes the creation of improvements. Hargreaves and Fink (2003); Harris (2010).
 The role of the principal Research on school improvement and change Principal’s role is to manage, motivate, organise and involve the staff in atmosphere for collaboration and experimentation. DuFour and Mattos (2013); Earley (2010); Harris (2002a); Rogers (2003); Wong and Li (2011)
Practices of the teaching community
 Pedagogical collaboration and sharing of expertise Research on school improvement and change Pedagogical collaboration and sharing supports teachers’ professional development as well as collaborative improvement of pedagogical practices Fullan (2001); Harris (2002b); Leclerc et al. (2012); Pedder and MacBeath (2008)
 Development practices Research on school improvement and change; research on innovation applied in school context Teachers’ development practices are an effective way to improve pupils learning and a way to improve teacher expertise. Bakkenes et al. (2010); Harris (2002b); Messmann and Mulder (2011); Rogers (2003)
 Networking of teachers Research on school improvement and change Networking opens the isolated teacher profession to new ideas and thinking. It is necessary for innovations. Chapman (2008); Scimeca et al. (2009)
Pedagogical practices
 Perceptions of using digital technology in education Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school; research on learning as knowledge creation Teachers’ perceptions of using technology affects the ways teachers use it with pupils. Perceptions are often more ‘advanced’ than the actual practices. Bereiter (2002); Donnelly et al. (2011); Hakkarainen et al. (2001); Hong and Sullivan (2009); Scardamalia and Bereiter (2006)
 Pedagogical practices with digital technology Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school; research on learning as knowledge creation Pedagogical practices with technology should focus on complex issues and activities like knowledge creation and problem solving in order to advance pupils’ general competencies. Bell (2010); Donnelly et al. (2011); Hakkarainen et al. (2001); OECD (2014)
School-level knowledge practices
 Common knowledge practices with technology Research on learning as knowledge creation; research on knowledge work organisations Common knowledge practices support learning and development in an organisation; in school, common practices help teachers and pupils because they give ‘standard’ models and ways of working. Brown and Duguid (2001); Scardamalia and Bereiter (1999)
 Physical premises Data on previous phases of the model, research on learning environments The school has sufficient and flexible premises for various pedagogical use Cleveland and Fisher (2014); Gislason (2010)
 Pupils’ involvement in school level activities Research on learning as knowledge creation; action research tradition; data on previous phases of the model Students are active members in the school community, not only as ‘objects of teaching’. Katsenou et al. 2015; Scardamalia and Bereiter (1999) Svanbjörnsdóttir, Macdonald and Frímannsson (2016)
 School-level networking Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school; research on school improvement and change A networking school opens out to the society and thus receives new kinds of collaboration and learning opportunities for pupils and teachers. Brown and Duguid (2001); Chapman (2008); Scimeca et al. (2009)
Digital resources
 Utility of technical resources Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school The school has resources for teaching and learning with digital technology; and the resources are organised meaningful way helping teachers and pupils in using technology. OECD (2014); Wong and Li (2011)
 Pupils’ digital competence Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school Pupils’ digital competence is acknowledged at school; pupils use technology in multiple ways, also at school and for school work. Learning digital technology in school ensures relevant competence for further education. OECD (2010, 2011, 2014)
 Teachers’ digital competence Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school Teachers’ digital competence is sufficient for carrying out pedagogical practices with technology; they can also support pupils’ evolving digital competence. OECD, 2010
 Pedagogical and technical training and support Research on technology as adoption of an innovation in school Teachers get various kind of pedagogical and technical training and support at local and school level. In this way, teachers can improve their professional competence. Hakkarainen et al. 2001