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Table 9 The analysis framework of the phenomena and the data

From: Digital technology and practices for school improvement: innovative digital school model

Investigated phenomenon Dimensions of the phenomenon Data sourcesa
A. Visions of the school
 A1. Visions of using digital technology 1. No clear visions
2. Emphasis on technical issues, like increasing equipment
3. Using digital technology for overall improvement
Teacher interviews, principal interview
 A2. Consensus about the vision 1. No common vision
2. Emerging; vision not present in daily work
3. Consensus of the vision; the vision is important for the school
Teacher interviews, principal interview
 A3. Intentional development orientation 1. No emphasis on development efforts
2. Individual initiatives supported, positive attitudes towards change
3. Focused collaborative development practices, the whole community accepts and participates
Teacher interviews, principal interview
B. Leadership
 B1. Shared leadership 1. Principal-centred community, no teams
2. Occasional teams or teams based on voluntary participation
3. Commonly agreed teacher teams, true responsibilities
Principal interview, teacher interviews
 B2. Networking of the principal 1. No networking or only for administration
2. Networking with colleagues and administration, mainly with the same educational level
3. Active networking with various kinds of educational institutions and actors outside educational field
Principal interview
 B3. Role of the principal 1. Mainly routine management
2. Good human resources leader, positive for development but not proactive
3. Organiser, developer of resources, initiator of improvement
Teacher interviews, principal interview
C. Practices of the teaching community
 C1. Pedagogical collaboration and sharing of expertise 1. Occasional collaboration between teachers of same subjects or class levels; material shared between a few teachers
2 Collaboration between teachers of same subjects or class levels; experiences shared occasionally in the school
3. Organised pedagogical collaboration and sharing practices
Teacher interviews, principal interview
 C2. Development practices 1. No collaborative development practices
2. Occasional development activities based on active individuals; freedom to develop
3. Established collaborative and individual development practices
Teacher interviews, principal interview
 C3. Networking of teachers 1. No networking or few teachers are networking
2. Several teachers have networks, but mainly with colleagues of the same subject
3. Several teachers active in networks, various types of contacts inside and outside school
Teacher interviews, teacher questionnaires
D. Pedagogical practices
 D1. Perceptions of using digital technology in education 1. Technology replacing teacher’s routines or for small-scale content learning
2. Technology as pupils’ tool for preparing and presenting pieces of work and for information search; emphasis on individual learning
3. Technology for diverse collaborative and creative learning activities
Teacher questionnaires, teacher interviews
 D2. Pedagogical practices with digital technology 1. Technology used in a teacher-centred way, content learning activities, applications related to textbooks or teacher presentations
2. Technology used according to the teacher; learner-centred activating tasks in individual lessons, short (one or two lessons) individual or small group activities, teacher-directed assignments
3. Teachers use technology in multiple ways; process-type activities and integrated projects; technology as a tool, but also used to improve digital competence
Classroom observations, teacher interviews, teacher and pupil questionnaires
E. School-level knowledge practices
 E1. Common knowledge practices with technology 1. No or limited common practices
2. Some shared practices or agreements, concern mainly technology
3. Agreements, models and guidelines related to various knowledge practices and competencies
Teacher interviews, principal interview, classroom observations
 E2. Physical premises 1. Inflexible spaces mainly for class teaching
2. Various types of spaces, but not enough flexibility and possibilities
3. Premises planned according to versatile pedagogical needs
Teacher interviews, classroom observations, principal interview
 E3. Pupils’ involvement in school level activities 1. No involvement other than the traditional pupil’s role
2. Occasional and emerging activation of pupils
3. Several and various types of pupils’ involvement and responsibilities
Teacher interviews, classroom observations, principal interview
 E4. School-level networking 1. No networking
2. Some networking, related to specific issues or individual teachers
3. Systematic, established contacts and collaboration partners
Teacher interviews, principal interview
F. Digital resources
 F1. Utility of technical resources 1. Centralised, insufficient resources, not working properly
2. Resources decentralised but insufficient
3. Good resources, technology decentralised to various spaces, various types of equipment
Teacher interviews, classroom observations, principal interview
 F2. Pupils’ digital competence 1. Pupils’ digital competence based on informal learning outside school; no plans or activities to support it
2. Pupils’ digital competence supported by a specific course or some individual teachers; not provided for all pupils
3. Digital competence is systematically supported; strategies about teaching digital skills in various subjects and grade levels
Pupil questionnaires, teacher interviews, classroom observations
 F3. Teachers’ digital competence 1. Digital competence varies, competence improvement based on individual decisions, no common lines, focus on technical skills
2. All teachers have basic competence, focus on technical skills
3. All teachers have multiple types of digital competence, but the level varies; focus on the pedagogical use of technology
Teacher questionnaires, teacher interviews, principal interview, classroom observations
 F4. Pedagogical and technical training and support 1. Some teachers responsible for technical support, no organised pedagogical support
2. Support organised but not sufficiently; focus on technological support
3. Well-organised support; in technical problems help easily available; also pedagogical support available
Teacher interviews, teacher questionnaires, principal interview
  1. aThe data sources are listed in the order of importance