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Table 2 The results of the pretest (the second graders)

From: Enhancing achievement and interest in mathematics learning through Math-Island

Mathematics abilities Experimental school
(N = 209)
Control school
(N = 125)
Wilks’ λ F MSE
M SD M SD
Conceptual understanding 20.92 2.89 20.86 4.00 0.982 0.025 0.276
Calculating 14.10 3.48 14.77 3.02 3.174 34.853
Word problem-solving 6.47 1.90 6.70 1.94 1.094 4.034
Total 41.49 7.24 42.33 7.67   0.995 54.559
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.