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Table 5 Multilevel model: generalized estimating equations (GEE)

From: The short- and long-term effects of a computerized reading training program on reading self-concept in second and third grade readers

  B SE 95% Wald confidence interval Hypothesis test
Lower Upper Wald chi-square df
Reading self-concept
 Intercept 3.797 0.1080 3.585 4.01 1235.35*** 1
 Typical-struggling readers 0.442 0.0986 0.249 0.635 20.11*** 1
 Accelerated-self-paced − 0.011 0.0988 − 0.205 0.182 0.013 1
 Time1-time3 − 0.120 0.0612 − 0.240 0.000 3.815* 1
 Time2-time3 0.101 0.0487 0.006 0.197 4.301* 1
Reading rate (words + text)
 Intercept 63.509 2.10 59.39 67.63 911.5*** 1
 Typical-struggling readers 26.283 2.31 21.76 30.81 129.66*** 1
 Accelerated-self-paced − 1.846 2.44 − 6.62 2.93 0.574 1
 Time1-time3 − 36.282 1.28 − 38.80 − 33.76 797.99*** 1
 Time2-time3 − 6.422 0.98 − 8.36 − 4.49 42.31*** 1
Reading accuracy (words + text)a
 Intercept − 2.272 0.15 − 2.57 − 1.97 219.36*** 1
 Typical-struggling readers − 1.084 0.019 − 1.449 − 0.72 33.87*** 1
 Accelerated-self-paced − 0.15 0.19 − 0.52 0.22 0.625 1
 Time1-time3 1.13 0.08 0.972 1.287 191.51*** 1
 Time2-time3 0.793 0.03 0.736 0.851 726.04*** 1
Reading comprehension a
 Intercept 1.009 0.29 0.441 1.577 12.12*** 1
 Typical-struggling readers 1.735 0.30 1.14 2.33 32.76*** 1
 Accelerated-self-paced 0.39 0.31 − 0.225 1.008 1.54 1
 Time1-time3 − 1.97 0.214 − 2.39 − 1.55 84.26*** 1
 Time2-time3 − 0.552 0.1801 − 0.905 − 0.199 9.40** 1
  1. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001
  2. aVariables transformed using logit transformation \( \ln \left(\frac{1-p}{p}\right) \)