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Table 10 Items of the Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) Questionnaire

From: Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

Factor Item
Participation Q1: I was actively participating in the science lesson.
Q2: I was listening carefully when other students were speaking or making presentations.
Q3: I asked others for help when I met difficulty.
Perspective taking Q4: Collaborating with others is more effective in finding solutions than working by oneself.
Q5: It is important to receive help from others in problem solving.
Q6: When facing unfamiliar problems, it is helpful to solve the problems by collaborating with others.
Social regulation Q7: During the science lesson, I can recognize my advantages and disadvantages in learning.
Q8: If my classmates have any problems, I have the duty to help them.
Q9: It is necessary to negotiate with other members to reach an agreement on a problem solution.
Task regulation Q10: I knew the objectives of the lesson clearly.
Q11: It is important to analyze problems before solving them.
Q12: I will investigate the information in order to solve the problems.
Q13: It is not necessary to find multiple solutions for one problem.
Learning and knowledge building Q14: In science lessons, it is often necessary to use knowledge from other subjects.
Q15: If I am provided enough information, I can acquire new knowledge by myself.
Q16: I can organize what I have learned after the lesson.
Q17: When I can’t solve the problems, I will reflect on the learning.