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Table 4 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between learning performance and learning behaviors

From: Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

 Learning performance
Pre-learningGroup discussion
Learning behaviorsNext(p)− 0.26 (0.41)Next(g)0.46 (0.13)
Prev(p)− 0.08 (0.80)Prev(g)0.27 (0.40)
AM(p)− 0.27 (0.39)AM(g)0.66* (0.02)
DM(p)− 0.31 (0.33)DM(g)0.76** (0.00)
AA(p)− 0.34 (0.28)AA(g)0.32 (0.31)
AB(p)0.26 (0.43)AB(g)0.42 (0.18)
  1. ρ(Sig.); N = 12; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; p < 0.1
  2. Next turn to next page, Prev turn to the previous page, AM add marker, DM delete marker, AA add annotation, AB add bookmark. (We have also collected the logs of Delete Annotation and Delete Bookmark; however, the data was 0)
  3. (p): During the pre-learning; (g): During the group discussion