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Table 8 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between STEM learning strategy and learning behaviors

From: Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

 Learning behaviors
Pre-learning
Next(p)Prev(p)AM(p)DM(p)AA(p)AB(p)
STEM learning strategyOrganizing0.31 (0.32)0.08 (0.79)0.22 (0.50)0.30 (0.35)0.26 (0.42)0.08 (0.81)
Elaborating0.18 (0.59)0.05 (0.89)0.15 (0.65)0.25 (0.25)0.18 (0.57)−0.03 (0.92)
Repeating− 0.25 (0.43)− 0.05 (0.88)− 0.28 (0.38)− 0.26 (0.42)− 0.09 (0.79)0.37 (0.24)
Effort− 0.43 (0.16)− 0.16 (0.61)− 0.44 (0.15)− 0.47 (0.13)− 0.21 (0.51)0.24 (0.46)
Attention0.05 (0.88)0.43 (0.16)0.33 (0.29)0.15 (0.65)0.54† (0.07)0.06 (0.85)
Time management0.03 (0.92)0.27 (0.39)0.23 (0.48)0.17 (0.60)0.40 (0.20)0.17 (0.60)
Learning environment− 0.42 (0.17)− 0.43 (0.16)− 0.54† (0.07)− 0.52† (0.09)− 0.51† (0.09)− 0.18 (0.57)
Peer learning0.02 (0.96)−0.18 (0.58)−0.13 (0.69)0.07 (0.84)−0.10 (0.75)0.02 (0.95)
Using references−0.00 (1.00)−0.11 (0.74)−0.11 (0.73)0.02 (0.96)0.24 (0.46)0.09 (0.78)
 Group discussion
Next(g)Prev(g)AM(g)DM(g)AA(g)AB(g)
STEM learning strategyOrganizing− 0.25 (0.43)− 0.29 (0.37)− 0.58* (0.05)− 0.74** (0.01)− 0.09 (0.78)− 0.22 (0.49)
Elaborating− 0.26 (0.42)− 0.29 (0.37)− 0.41 (0.19)− 0.55† (0.06)0.45 (0.15)− 0.05 (0.87)
Repeating0.51† (0.09)0.61* (0.03)0.24 (0.45)0.19 (0.55)0.31 (0.32)0.46 (0.32)
Effort0.56† (0.06)0.75** (0.01)0.28 (0.39)0.24 (0.45)0.18 (0.58)0.39 (0.21)
Attention0.34 (0.28)0.24 (0.28)0.27 (0.39)0.157 (0.63)0.09 (0.78)0.03 (0.94)
Time management− 0.20 (0.53)0.12 (0.72)− 0.33 (0.30)− 0.44 (0.16)− 0.14 (0.67)0.08 (0.79)
Learning environment0.19 (0.56)0.42 (0.17)0.32 (0.32)0.25 (0.43)0.36 (0.25)0.58† (0.05)
Peer learning− 0.04 (0.91)0.25 (0.43)0.02 (0.95)0.02 (0.96)0.13 (0.68)0.26 (0.42)
Using references0.17 (0.61)0.09 (0.77)− 0.42 (0.18)− 0.43 (0.17)0.09 (0.77)0.05 (0.87)
  1. ρ(Sig.); N = 12; **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, p < 0.1