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Table 1 Motivation or drive, user types for gamification, and associated mechanics

From: Towards a motivational design? Connecting gamification user types and online learning activities

Motivation and gamification user types and associated gamification mechanics*
Motivation/driveRelatedness (intrinsic)Autonomy (intrinsic)Competence (intrinsic)Purpose (intrinsic)Rewards (extrinsic)
DefinitionThe desire to connect to others.The need to feel independent or free.The desire to learn new skills and develop expertise in them.A feeling of greater meaning or a desire to be altruistic.Receiving acknowledgement.
User type(1) Socializer (So)(2) Free Spirit (FS)(3) Achiever (A)(4) Philanthropist (Ph)(5) Player (P)
Associated gamification mechanicsSocial Discovery/Network (So1)Creativity (Tools) (FS1)Level/Progression (A1)Care-Taking (Ph1)Leaderboards/Ladders (P1)
Guilds/Teams (So2)Exploration (FS2)Learning/New Skills (A2)Sharing Knowledge (Ph2)(Virtual) Economy (P2)
Social Pressure, neg. (So3)Easter Eggs (FS3)Quests (A3)Meaning/ Purpose (Ph3)(Physical) Rewards/Prizes (P2)
Social Pressure, pos. (So4)Branching Choices (FS4)Unlockables/ Rare Content (A4)Collect and Trade (Ph4)Badges/Achievements/ Certificates (P4)
  1. *e.g., Marczewski (2015); Salen and Zimmermann (2004); Zichermann and Cunningham (2011)