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Table 3 Correlations between gamification user types, mechanics, and online learning activities (n = 86)

From: Towards a motivational design? Connecting gamification user types and online learning activities

User typeGamification mechanicsOnline learning activities
(A) Forums(B) Peer Assessment(C) Quiz(D) Task(E) Tutorial(F) Wiki
(1) Socializer—relatednessSocial Discovery/Network (So1).594*.397*.019.255*.279*.340*
Guilds/Teams (So2).184.307*− .209.005.188.232*
Social Pressure (neg.) (So3).081.045− .148.096.060− .054
Social Pressure (pos.) (So4).177.215*− .103.022.089− .009
(2) Free Spirit—autonomyCreativity (Tools) (FS1).202.180.008.045.113− .009
Exploration (FS2).212.173.275*.012.194− .003
Easter Eggs (FS3)− .091.043− .004− .078.042.000
Branching Choices (FS4).118.070.088− .049.126− .186
(3) Achiever—competenceLevel/Progression (A1).163.043.117.170.388*.235*
Learning/New Skills (A2).090.167.108.092.162.245*
Quests (A3)− .025.077− .095.080.070− .067
Unlockables/Rare Content (A4).009.115.078.015.243*.156
(4) Philanthropist—purposeCare-Taking (Ph1).014.013.074− .135.215*.201
Sharing Knowledge (Ph2).309*.262*.052.117.172.257*
Purpose/Meaning (Ph3).079− .006.011− .102.248*.162
Collect and Trade (Ph4).177− .014− .013.081.125.136
(5) Player—rewardsLeaderboards/Ladders (P1)− .056.045− .085− .077− .065− .026
(Virtual)Economy (P2).109.159− .021.213*− .010.084
(Physical)Rewards/Prizes (P3).000.041− .114− .046.110.058
Badges/Achievements; Certificates (P4).124− .026.073.078− .009.012
  1. *Data analysis showed significant correlations (p < .05, two tailed)