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Table 11 Approach two for identifying conceptions of teaching and enacted practice. Nine student-centred indicators developed from Bain’s ‘what the best teachers do’ (Bain, 2004) adapted to online education by Brinthaupt et al. (2011)

From: Understanding fully online teaching in vocational education

Category Question prompt
Stimulate intellectual development Utilise engaging tasks students will find interesting.
Utilise a variety of technologies such as videos or podcasts.
Facilitate discussion forums where students explore concepts and develop deep knowledge together.
Utilise technology for real-time engagement with groups of students (e.g. Live Rooms)
Foster student engagement Develop group cohesiveness, helping students work together for mutual benefit. Use discussion forums to facilitate social interaction between students.
Create a friendly, social atmosphere where deep learning is encouraged.
Build rapport with students Use introductory videos or other self-disclosure methods to humanise yourself to students.
Consciously build rapport with each individual student.