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Table. 1 The English tense–aspect system (adapted from Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999) and Larsen-Freeman and Celce-Murcia (2015)

From: Dr. Mosaik: a holistic framework for understanding the English tense–aspect system based on ontology engineering

Tense Aspect
Simple Perfect Progressive Perfect progressive
(inflected) have (inflected) + past participle be (inflected) + ing form have (inflected) + been + ing form
Present walk/walks has/have walked am/is/are walking has/have been walking
Past walked had walked was/were walking had been walking
Future willa walk will have walked will be walking will have been walking
  1. aOther modals can be used to express future time; will is the most common