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Table. 3 Simple present: an extraction of essential rules

From: Dr. Mosaik: a holistic framework for understanding the English tense–aspect system based on ontology engineering

Simple present
Time-unrelated rules (exclusive characteristic of this tense)
 Series of actions and events
  Instructions (directions/recipes) (You go straight, turn right...)
 Intentionally turning the past into present (storytelling)
  Story/anecdote/commentary (for liveliness) (So he knocks, walks in, and…)
  Summary of event (for liveliness) (In 1945, the war comes to an end…)
       Headlines (news) (Investigation Sheds Light on...)
Time-related rules (which derive into simple past)
 Shared understanding of “now” (also occurs in past and future)
 With explicit specification
  Habit/recurrent action
   With expressions of frequency (I clean the garden every day. I usually clean…)
   In  time clauses (I clean the garden when I find time.)
  Set scheduled event (The plane leaves at 8 p.m. tomorrow/on Tuesdays.)
  Event/action that prepares for future action/event
   In time clauses (As soon as he arrives, I will prepare dinner.)
 Without explicit specification
  Statement of “general” truth
   Generalization, fact, truth (The sun rises from the east.)
   Long-lasting state or situation (Grizzly bears live in Alaska.)
Description of states (stative-meaning verbs)
 Being/existing (The beauty of this area consists in its gorgeous temples.)
 Cognitive/mental states
  Thinking/belief/opinion/likes/dislikes (I understand. I know/think he’s wrong. I like sushi.)
  State of mind/feeling (I expect you to arrive early. I am happy to help you. I love you.)
 Sense perception (This soup tastes wonderful.)
 Appearance (You look great.)
 Possession (He has a beautiful car.)
 Scientific states/relations between concepts (X depends on feedback loops. The sum equals 34.)
 Other (This pumpkin weighs 10 kg.)
Case of exception
 Performative verbs (I promise not to tell anyone.)
 Certain expressions (Here comes the bus!)