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Table 4 The analysis of sources included in the integrative review

From: A novel framework for integrating social media as cooperative learning tool in higher education’s classrooms

Source Research design/sample Location/course Examined tool Major practices Major findings
1. Zheng et al. (2015) Iterative, design-based (n = 139) -China
-Educational Technology, History and Physical Sciences
-Duration: from Fall 2007 to Fall 2009
(four-iteration design-based research)
Wiki -Groups by topics chosen.
-Co-wrote on a single Wiki page.
-Students signed up for tasks and each was explicitly responsible for a specific part of the content creation.
-Students chose a group leader and assigned roles and responsibilities for each one of them.
-Students discussed, share resources, and reflected on groupwork.
-Instructor provided examples of prior student work on wiki.
-Instructor and researcher played the roles of facilitators.
-Instructor provided out-of-classroom support via email/answering questions on wiki and used incentives in the third and fourth activities to motivate students.
-Well-designed instruction is vital to the success of any technology-facilitated learning activities in HE.
-The Wiki project grew more effective with several rounds of iterations.
-Future research should address the development of iterative design approaches for refining teaching strategies.
2. Chookaew (2015) Experimental design with 2 groups (including a control group) (n = 59) -Thailand
14 weeks
-Computer, Multimedia instruction course
Facebook -Created teams by topic of individual interest.
-Students shared personal information on the group.
-Students in the group were held accountable for the work completed and the materials to be learnt.
-Students discussed and exchanged ideas about the assignment (in/out class hours).
-Students provided feedback and encouraged one another.
-Instructor provided a detailed guide of conditions for students to work with.
-The instructor was the facilitator of groupwork.
-Online cooperative learning through Facebook groups enhanced students’ learning achievement.
-Promoted positive attitudes toward learning.
3. Rambe (2017) Community of Inquiry and a case study approach (n = 15) -South Africa
-Masters in ICTs in Education
-4 months duration
Google Groups -Two students’ administrators signing new group members, regulating their academic behavior and blocked access to non-class members.
-Group was a restricted/closed site.
-Student had full ownership of posts and group discussions.
-The educator did not participate in discussions and posts.
-The educator joined the group and was only responding to questions.
-Posts are not obligatory by students.
-In/out class hours
-Google Groups presented multiple academic engagement opportunities.
-Benefits were shown in emergent academic networking, student access to knowledgeable peers and academics, and improved the online visibility of interactants
-Issues of administrators’ dominance over group members as well equitable participation which is indicative of the importance of academic regulation and incentive.
4. Menzies et al. (2017) Case study research (use of focus groups) (n = 11) -Scotland
-The school of computing
-2 months
Facebook -The staff member and tutors are the administrators discussing topics providing and sharing further online resources.
-Students answer and discuss the topics in a collaborative manner.
-Staff can step in to clear out misunderstandings
-If limited activity in the group, the staff member may seed a conversation.
-Assignment groups are created and managed solely by students.
-Used for communications relating to a given assignment (in/out class hours).
-Created on an ad hoc basis and may be repurposed for future assignments where appropriate.
-A blur in SM’s uses and purpose in education contexts.
-Use of different purpose groups is useful as it allows breaking communications down so students would not be overwhelmed.
-Familiarity and usability of Facebook helped achieve the positive results.
-Staff moderation of groups yielded much discussion.
-Students expected staff to direct them to the privacy settings.
5. De Wever et al. (2015) Experimental design (n = 186) Educational Sciences
-Three-week period
Wiki -Participation was complimentary.
-Students were randomly assigned to a group.
-Specific guidelines, in the form of a step-by-step plan, were provided to organize their group work.
-Students built knowledge on each other’s work.
-In/out class hours
-Students taking turn in completing the drafts and final deliverable.
-Students edited others’ ideas in Wikis to increase the amount of work shared.
-Scripting (providing a guide) was beneficial.
-It increased the shared responsibility within a collaborative environment.
-The script can influence how thorough a task is dealt with.
6. Bagarukayo (2018) Bowers Affordance Analysis eLearning design methodology framework (n = 48) Makerere University
Students at the Operating Systems course unit at the School of Computing and Informatics Technology
Facebook -A closed group page in Facebook was created.
-Students did all discussions, commented on posts, posted videos, links, uploaded and shared videos they created.
-In/out class hours
-Multimedia content, such as videos, music, pictures, text, and emojis, were used as posts
-Access to group page required approval from the administrator and creator of group
-The group enabled peers’ interactions, critiquing and learning from one another in the process.
-Facebook affords students ability to communicate, interact, and collaborate.
-Students were actively engaged and enjoyed the use of Facebook to learn.