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Table 4 Examples of learners’ pre-teaching and post-teaching reflections on their understanding of e-Learning

From: Delivery and evaluation of an e-Learning framework through computer-aided analysis of learners’ reflection text in a teacher development course

Pre-teaching reflection Post-teaching reflection
Example 1:  
“By the use of electronic equipment and multimedia in teaching such as interactive web pages, animations, video, audio, etc., it is easier for students to learn, grasp and consolidate abstract concepts and to provide instant feedback to teachers. For students’ perspective, the learning process could occur at anytime and anywhere.” “The goal of e-Learning in a school could be set and achieved using various electronic tools including electronic resources, electronic platforms of communication. The tools can also be applied to collect students’ learning data and outcomes, from which we could understand the learning progress of students so that the learning process is more efficient. In addition, through the use of flipped classroom, student-centered learning strategies can be realized by requiring students to do preview at home in order to save the time of direct instruction to cover basic knowledge. Consequently, the strategies facilitate group discussion in the lesson, the development of students’ higher-order thinking and the interaction between teachers and students in the classroom.”
Example 2:  
“E-learning is the use of computing equipment to help student learning by improving learning motivation of students, their ability of self-learning and by strengthening teacher-students and peer interactions. Various learning activities become possible so that it is more interactive in lecturing and students’ learning activities can be diversified. The learning materials and locations are not limited to textbooks or classrooms respectively. Also, the forms of assessment/homework can be diversified so that they are no longer limited to text. For examples, audio, pictures, video can be used. Moreover, instant statistics from students’ answers can be drawn so that teachers can provide feedback to students in the lesson quickly.” “E-Learning is a teaching method with the use of information technology. Student learning is assisted by computer or telecommunications equipment. Therefore, student learning is not restricted by time and location so that ability of self-learning is promoted. After the implementation of e-Learning, teaching resources are diversified including digital multimedia and online resources. The resources would enhance learning motivation of students and help students understanding abstract concepts so that their ability of inquiry can be enhanced. On the other hand, the teaching resources also provide learning support to cater for the individual learning needs of students. The teaching contents could also be digitalized. This digital way of communication enhances not only instant sharing and feedback in the classroom and but also online interaction through some learning platforms after school so that teacher-student and peer interactions could be strengthened. The communication and collaboration skills of students could be enhanced. Besides, teachers can use IT equipment to assess instant statistics based on students’ answers, to perform data analysis and to provide feedback quickly during the lesson. Since most of the learning data could be recorded, stakeholders including teachers, students and parents could check the learning process of students through e-portfolio, from which teachers are allowed to reflect and enhance their pedagogical skills.”