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Table 3 SCLEQ list of terms, CA, CR, AVE, and Loadings adapted from (Aldridge et al., 2000; Luckay & Laugksch, 2015; Sultan et al., 2011)

From: The cross-cultural validation of the technology-enhanced social constructivist learning environment questionnaire in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Investigation Loadings
CA = .718
CR = .826
AVE = .535
INV1 I am asked to think about the supporting facts for statements. (item deleted) 0.538
  INV2 I carry out investigations to answer questions coming from discussions 0.736
  INV3 I explain the meaning of statements, diagrams, and graphs. (item deleted) 0.564
  INV4 I carry out investigations to answer the teacher’s questions 0.709
  INV5 I find out answers to questions by doing investigations 0.741
  INV6 I find a solution for problems related to social phenomena by using information and data obtained from investigations 0.593
Learning about the world (relevancy)    
CA = .721
CR = .827
AVE = .544
REL1 I learn about the world inside and outside of school 0.780
  REL2 My new learning starts with questions or problems about the real world outside of school 0.709
  REL3 I get a better understanding of the world outside of school 0.732
  REL4 I learn interesting things about the world inside and outside of school 0.727
Learning about the research process (uncertainty)    
CA = .521
CR = .758
AVE = .414
UNC1 I learn that social science has changed over time 0.786
  UNC2 I learn that social science subjects are influenced by peoples’ values and opinions 0.716
  UNC3 I learn that social science cannot always provide answers to real-life problems. (item deleted) 0.417
 < 0.5
  UNC4 I learn that classroom activities are a way to seek better answers and generate new questions 0.593
Learning to speak out (critical voice)    
CA = 0.633
CR = .803
AVE = .498
CRI1 It’s OK for me to ask the teacher, “why do I have to learn this?” or how I am being taught. (item deleted) 0.611
  CRI2 It’s OK for me to ask my teacher for clarification about activities that are confusing 0.753
  CRI3 My teacher encourages me to ask questions to clarify ideas or to deepen my understanding 0.760
  CRI4 It’s OK for me to speak up for my rights 0.687
Learning to learn (shared control)    
CA = .763
CR = .850
AVE = .590
SHA1 I help the teacher to plan what I am going to learn 0.813
  SHA2 I help the teacher to decide how well I am learning 0.828
  SHA3 I help the teacher to decide which activities work best for me 0.812
  SHA4 I let the teacher know when I need more or less time to complete assignments 0.595
Learning to Share (Student negotiation)    
CA = .710
CR = .821
AVE = .535
NEG1 I talk with other students about how to solve social problems 0.719
  NEG2 I ask other students to explain their ideas 0.788
  NEG3 I am asked by other students to explain my ideas 0.737
  NEG4 My teacher encourages me to raise issues and ask questions with other students in order to clarify and inform our thinking 0.677
Respect for difference    
CA = .813
CR = .871
AVE = .575
RES1 I am aware that my classmates have different opinions about topics related to social science 0.646
  RES2 I listen to my classmates’ opinions about social science topics 0.784
  RES3 Before I agree or disagree with my classmates’ opinions about social science topics, I first think about what they said 0.785
  RES4 I try to understand my classmates’ opinions about social science topics 0.815
  RES5 I respect my classmates’ opinions about social science topics 0.750
Perceived e-Learning Outcome (Student Experience)    
CA = .822
CR = .882
AVE = .652
eLEAR1 Using e-learning resources improved my critical thinking 0.804
  eLEAR2 The e-learning resources help me understand the subject contents more in-depth 0.863
  eLEAR3 I enjoy using different learning modes to learn 0.739
  eLEAR4 The e-learning resources help me understand the subject contents quicker 0.819
  1. CA Cronbach’s alpha, CR Composite reliability, AVE Average variance extracted