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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria for selection

From: A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: possible solutions and recommendations for future research

Criterion Inclusion Exclusion
Definition of flipped classroom The flipped classroom should at least include (1) the use of audio or video materials for students’ class preparation, and (2) regular face-to-face class meetings. The flipped classroom that utilized only text-based materials in out-of-class learning activities, or did not have any regular face-to-face lessons.
Participants Students in K-12 education settings (e.g., elementary schools, secondary school, high school) All other students outside the contexts of K-12 education (e.g., higher education, continuing education)
Time period January 1994 to September 2016. The studies that outside the time period.
Type of article The studies must be empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals The studies that were not peer reviewed
Language English Non-English studies