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Table 2 The descriptive data and the results of the t test for MSLQ

From: Learning analytics of the relationships among self-regulated learning, learning behaviors, and learning performance

Item (minimum-maximum) Average (SD) before the course Average (SD) after the course t Sig
Self-efficacy (9 questions) (9–63) 32.54 (8.96) 36.42 (9.20) t(120) = 4.51 p < 0.001
Intrinsic value (9 questions) (9–63) 45.21 (6.29) 44.31 (8.15) t(120) = 1.20  
Cognitive strategies (13 questions) (13–91) 60.12 (7.79) 60.63 (8.69) t(120) = 0.68  
Self-regulation (9 questions) (9–63) 36.26 (5.63) 36.49 (6.22) t(120) = 0.42  
Test anxiety (4 questions) (4–28) 15.17 (4.45) 16.07 (4.34) t(120) = 2.21 p < 0.05
  1. Note: The min-max scores of all the domains in the questionnaire were calculated based on the Likert scale of 1–7