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Table 1 Contents of the CPS and SLS questionnaires

From: Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

CPS questionnaire
Social skillsParticipationEngagement with the tasks, the extent to which they attach importance to others’ opinions and interact with others.
Perspective takingAbility to integrate contributions from others into their own thoughts and reevaluate problems.
Social regulationStrategy of recognizing the diversity of group members and negotiating with members until mutual solutions are identified.
Cognitive skillsTask regulationAbility to analyze the problem, manage resources, set clear goals, collect information, and seek various solutions to complex situations.
Learning and knowledge buildingAbility to identify relationships between pieces of information, integrate knowledge from other fields or subjects, monitor outcomes, reflect on processes.
SLS questionnaire
OrganizingOrganizing and summarizing the important points.
ElaboratingConnecting new scientific facts with earlier ones or practical applications.
RepeatingLearning and remembering scientific facts through repetition.
EffortMaking efforts to learn science and solve problems.
AttentionConcentration on learning science and solving problems.
Time managementConducting individual learning or group work according to a schedule.
Learning environmentBeing willing to study somewhere that makes it easy to concentrate or find references.
Peer learningCollaborating with others when learning science and solving problems.
Using referencesUsing references for additional information.