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Table 7 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between CPS awareness and learning behaviors

From: Direction of collaborative problem solving-based STEM learning by learning analytics approach

 CPS awareness
Social skillsCognitive skills
  ParticipationPerspective takingSocial regulationTask regulationLearning and knowledge building
Learning behaviorsPre-learning
Next(p)− 0.00 (0.99)0.44 (0.15)− 0.33 (0.29)0.31 (0.33)− 0.47 (0.13)
Prev(p)0.40 (0.19)0.40 (0.20)0.08 (0.82)0.08 (0.80)− 0.55† (0.07)
AM(p)0.22 (0.50)0.41 (0.18)− 0.10 (0.76)0.25 (0.44)− 0.60* (0.04)
DM(p)− 0.04 (0.92)0.24 (0.45)− 0.29 (0.36)0.31 (0.33)− 0.54† (0.07)
AA(p)0.00 (1.00)0.20 (0.54)− 0.25 (0.43)− 0.10 (0.75)− 0.50 (0.10)
AB(p)0.25 (0.43)0.00 (1.00)0.08 (0.80)− 0.13 (0.69)− 0.03 (0.93)
Group discussion
Next(g)− 0.03 (0.92)− 0.06 (0.86)0.11 (0.74)− 0.45 (0.14)0.39 (0.21)
Prev(g)− 0.08
(0.80)
− 0.29 (0.35)0.18 (0.58)− 0.41 (0.19)0.20 (0.54)
AM(g)0.27 (0.40)− 0.01 (0.97)0.60* (0.04)0.15 (0.65)0.17 (0.59)
DM(g)0.05 (0.89)− 0.22 (0.50)0.64* (0.03)0.06 (0.85)0.24 (0.46)
AA(g)0.49 (0.10)0.00 (1.00)0.26 (0.41)0.40 (0.20)0.13 (0.68)
AB(g)0.45 (0.15)0.10 (0.76)0.40 (0.20)0.35 (0.27)− 0.09 (0.79)
  1. ρ(Sig.); N = 12; *p < 0.05, p < 0.1