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Table 3 Challenges of measuring SRL on e-learning platforms

From: Research trends in measurement and intervention tools for self-regulated learning for e-learning environments—systematic review (2008–2018)

Use of traditional tools/methods on e-learningThe traditional instruments such as questionnaires and interviews are trait-based and user-oriented; learners respond to SRL items depending on how they perceive themselves leading to learners overestimating their use of SRL skills. The tools are also deployed outside the learning environment before or after a learning episode and therefore not able to measure SRL during an actual learning episode when skills are being employed by students.(Broadbent & Poon, 2015; Lee, 2008; Roth et al., 2016; Saks & Leijen, 2014; Siadaty, 2016; Winne & Perry, 2000)
The traditional tools and methods are obtrusiveThe learners are normally aware of SRL being measured and therefore affect their engagement and performance(Schraw, 2010)
(Siadaty, 2016)
Existence of many models and many constructs to be measuredThere is no generalized model that describes or conceptualizes all SRL constructs. Additionally, each of the existing models is grounded on different aspects of learning.(Carlos Núñez et al., 2017)
Lack of a tool(s) for both SRL measurements and interventionsWhat’s next after establishing one’s level of SRL? So far, we have had separate tools for measuring and promoting SRL. Authors now recommend a tool for both.(Panadero et al., 2016)
Lack of framework that describes/guides how to establish learners’ levels of SRL and describe at what level to start and stop issuing scaffold within an e-learning system.The existing theoretical models only provide frameworks that describe the different phases, processes, and constructs to be measured. When it comes to actual measurement and provision of scaffolds, there is no defined framework to follow for guidelines.(Panadero et al., 2016)
(Araka, Maina, Gitonga, & Oboko, 2019)