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Table 2 Summary of findings from the focus group feedback with the major themes evolved

From: Can flipped classroom enhance class engagement and academic performance among undergraduate pediatric nursing students? A mixed-methods study

Themes classificationPre-cyclePost-cycle IPost-cycle II
Theme 1—The teaching method: a revolution and an experienceMost of the students stated that CBL requires a lot of preparation, and they do not have sufficient background to contribute more to it. They were hesitant of contributing wrong things.
Students stated expressed that they are used to this CBL method and it is no more interesting. Instead, they preferred to have a method by which they can learn better and they can participate in an interesting way.
Students commented that FCR is very interesting. Preparation for the class from home was easier than before, and they said that they felt like attending the lecture in the class.
Students felt the advantage of using the FCR method is that they could use it at their pace. They appreciated the brief review of the case in the class, as it made the concept clearer and helped in the retention of information.
The students reacted that the additional one hour of preparatory time before the class helped in in-depth reviewing the learning materials and to organize their ideas.
The students felt that the extra time helped in clarification and discussion of points with their peer group members and they felt better guided with the presence of the teacher. They appreciated that it helped them in getting better scores in quizzes.
Theme 2—The didactic materials: for entertainment and informationStudents commented that the source of information in CBL is the prescribed textbook and the PowerPoint material in BB. Some of the information in the textbook is not clear as they are not exposed to the cases.
Students felt that there is very less information in the power point and are not suitable for discussion and it is boring. They preferred to have some information which stimulates their learning.
Students considered the power point in the FCR as very interesting and self-explanatory. They commented that it was very appealing with videos and animation, and was a very rich experience.
The students regarded the information as a bit overwhelming, even though interesting as they have also other subjects to learn. They expressed to have more time for class preparation and for solving the questions.
The students reported that the power points with plenty of diagrams were extremely helpful and made the concept very clear.
The detailed information made clarification of the topic better and stimulated their critical thinking as well as to organize their ideas and to get ready for answering the questions.
Theme 3—Esprit de corps: the in-class activities and interactionsStudents expressed that the sequence of activities is always the same in CBL, and there are some students who will not prepare and willing to present in the class. They suggested having more teamwork for making better interactions.
The students perceived that the case given may not be covering all areas of the disease condition. They encounter problems with limited information while answering the questions during the discussion. They expressed to have detailed activities covering the entire topic.
The students rated the class activities in FCR very interesting and viewed that all students could actively participate in it.
The students regarded that the discussion in the class was better than the presentation, about various aspects of the case, as all the students could get involved and concentrate. They suggested having added varieties of activities to encourage further interactions in smaller groups.
The students said that they could visualize their role as a future nurse while doing the activities, especially when it came to role playing and discussion.
The students expressed a clearer understanding of the concept and conveyed that they were very motivated to participate in class activities. They also felt very confident to answer any question and to contribute to each other in discussion and said that the quiz was really helpful to gain a better understanding of the session.
  1. Note: CBL case-based learning, BB blackboard learning, FCR flipped classroom