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Table 1 Sample characteristics and baseline comparisons at T1 (middle of grade 1)

From: (Swiss) GraphoLearn: an app-based tool to support beginning readers

 Training groupsControlContrasts
Group 1
n = 18
Group 2*
n = 16
Good readers
n = 16
TG1 : CGTG2 : CGTG1 : TG2
M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)tp valuetp valuetp value
Sex ratio (f:m)10:85:1111:5      
Age7.22 (0.30)7.34 (0.38)7.24 (0.29)−0.21.8320.83.414−1.03.310
IQ (CFT-1)a99.78 (7.04)99.50 (12.77)103.93 (11.99)−1.24.225−0.99.3280.08.937
Reading tests
SLRT-IIb
 Words17.61 (14.53)23.43 (19.34)51.91 (35.73)3.74.0012.73.011−0.99.331
 Pseudowords13.11 (13.29)15.00 (16.50)46.44 (33.53)3.89.0003.28.003−0.36.718
Upper-case word reading11.33 (6.09)13.87 (6.49)25.50 (17.83)3.18.0032.38.024−1.15.257
Local reading test
 Words12.56 (9.22)13.93 (5.85)20.13 (7.43)2.56.0152.54.017−0.50.620
 Pseudowords8.83 (8.27)11.93 (9.03)19.07 (7.48)3.73.0012.36.026−1.03.312
Phonological processing
TEPHOBE 
 Rhyme4.72 (1.45)5.00 (1.56)5.56 (1.03)1.93.063−1.19.243−0.53.600 
 Initial sound categorization4.89 (2.03)5.80 (1.78)6.38 (1.15)2.59.014−1.08.291−1.36.184 
BAKO 
 Phoneme deletion2.72 (2.16)2.20 (2.11)4.13 (2.03)1.94.0612.59.0150.70.490
 Pseudoword segmentation3.11 (1.28)2.67 (1.95)3.88 (1.46)−1.63.1131.96.0590.80.438
 Vowel substitution5.06 (2.88)4.00 (2.56)6.50 (1.59)1.78.0853.29.0031.10.279
Rapid automatized naming 
 Letters**0.89 (0.30)1.06 (0.28)1.42 (0.45)4.10.0002.59.015−1.65.109
 Numbers**0.90 (0.23)1.00 (0.16)1.31 (0.38)3.81.0012.86.008−1.28.209
 Colors0.60 (0.20)0.61 (0.17)0.84 (0.31)2.71.0112.54.017−0.15.883
 Objects0.65 (0.13)0.66 (0.12)0.83 (0.17)4.10.0003.16.004−0.06.953
  1. *Data missing for 1 participant at T1 (NT1 = 15)
  2. **Data missing for 2 participants for group 2 (NT1 = 14)
  3. aMeasured at T3
  4. bPercentile score
  5. TG1 = Group 1; TG2 = Group 2; CG Control group; bold text indicates significant results (p < 0.05); italic text represents results at trend level